It has been proven that the problems that are generated with an eating disorder, either due to inadequate consumption of nutrients, excess and / or lack of other elements of the diet, can have serious consequences from an organic, functional and even emotional point of view in the individual, if these alterations are not detected in time and corrected, leaving some sequelae difficult to improve.
Causes of eating disorders
The eating disorders are a group of disorders related to altered eating habits, accepted as usual and healthy for everyone. These behaviors can be derived from multiple factors, psychological and environmental being the main ones and often not secondary to the voluntary and conscious decision of each individual.
At times, they may be subject to external and internal factors such as self-esteem, frustrations or work / school pressures, as well as inflexible family and social standards, such as constant comparisons with fashion ideals or beauty stereotypes.
A busy, disorganized life without adequate hours to eat food, with the intake of processed food, high in fat and calories, ends up taking its toll, which has an impact on our health that is accompanied by a sedentary lifestyle, little physical activity and a risky family history , will generate significant overweight until reaching degrees of obesity that lead to cardio-metabolic pathologies (diabetes, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome ) that, if not corrected early and correctly, can trigger permanent deterioration in the body.
Major eating disorders
Among the major eating disorders, ranging from malnutrition to morbid obesity, are anorexia, bulimia, and compulsion to eat.
Even the same person can present different behaviors and, in other cases, present alternate behaviors of fasting, diet, excess food, use of laxatives, self-generation of vomiting and other distorted behaviors, during specific periods of time that may suggest the increasing severity and progression of the disease.
Impact of eating disorders on fertility
A complete and balanced diet that is reflected in a healthy body weight is very influential on fertility. Body weight, mainly body fat content, hormonally and metabolically affects different aspects of health in general and reproduction in particular.
Thus, having an ideal weight and an adequate diet can even influence the age of onset of menarche (first menstruation) and allow adequate progress and adaptation of the prepubertal transition stage to adolescence and a full reproductive life.
In the case of anorexia, which is a psychological distortion of the real appearance that causes a marked anxiety about weight control and everything that is ingested, due to eating disorder , low caloric intake and elevated mediators and inhibitory neurotransmitters, a secondary blockage of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is generated, which can present in initial stages menstrual disorders until it leads to amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation) and, consequently, to the lack of ovulation, which translates into an inability and / or limitation in being able to conceive.
1. In women
The reproductive system is very sensitive to the stress that eating disorders can imply since, once the ideal weight is regained, ovulatory problems can persist in some cases, requiring longer waiting times and even additional specialized treatment, so that the body regain your reproductive capacity prior to the development of the eating disorder.
If the eating disorder is corrected in the short or medium term and receives support in the nutritional, psychological and reproductive medical aspects, it is possible (if there is no other underlying diagnosis that prevents fertility for both the woman and the couple), that a pregnancy occurs spontaneously.
In the same way, good nutrition is reflected in the reserve of nutrients available, so that you are not only capable of achieving a pregnancy, but also that it can be carried out successfully; avoiding complications such as preterm delivery or fetal growth restriction, related to the presence of anemia, malnutrition and deficiency of certain amino acids and trace elements in the diet.
2. In man
In the case of men, there are studies that relate the content of essential nutrients and sperm characteristics. Although it is true that the global prevalence of eating disorders in men is a much lower percentage than in women, in recent years it has been increasing.
On the other hand, it is known that the deficiency of certain vitamins, minerals and trace elements, as well as a diet high in cholesterol and unsaturated fats is capable of generating increases in free radicals, which affect the quality and structure of the sperm, being also a factor of interference in the formation of an adequate seminal fluid, jointly generating a loss or decrease in male fertility.
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